Mitra for anti-HCV and HIV Tridot; J Mitra for anti HIV-1, 2 in Microbiology department of the hospital. (15.30%) were anti-HCV antibody positive. There was no coexistence of HIV, HBV, and HCV markers. The major primary renal diseases in hemodialysis patients included diabetes mellitus (42%), hypertension (22%), chronic nephritis (15%), urologic diseases (6%), cystic renal diseases (4%), and others (11%). Conclusion: Prevalence of transfusion-transmissible viral infections was higher among hemodialysis patients, especially HCV infection which was an alarming situation and therefore strict adherence to infection control strategies, barrier precautions, and preventive measures, including routine hepatitis B vaccination and regular virological follow-up were E 64d (Aloxistatin) recommended along with regular education and training programs of technical and nursing personnel’s involved with dialysis patients. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Hemodialysis, nosocomial transmission, serconversion, seropositive INTRODUCTION Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in hemodialysis patients varies geographically, both within and between countries. The high prevalence of these infections in dialysis patients reflects the increased presence of common risk factors for their acquisition, including a history of drug abuse, transfusion, and transplantation plus susceptibility to nosocomial transmission during dialysis. Sharing of supplies, instruments, or medications between hemodialysis patients and reuse of dialyzers increases the spread of these infections between patients.[2,3] Following a reduction in the transmission from blood products that have been screened for the presence of these viruses, nosocomial spread E 64d (Aloxistatin) of these infection on account of failure to adhere to universal infection prevention measures has assumed more significance. Although blood for transfusion is screened for these viruses, blood transfusion still remains a major risk factor for transmission of these infections as viruses in the blood could have been in the window period or there could have been contamination from the other positive patients within the E 64d (Aloxistatin) dialysis unit. HBV DNA has been detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative hemodialysis patients and staff, and they are, therefore, potentially infectious to other patients and staff. The general prognosis of hepatitis in patients on maintenance dialysis is usually benign as most of these patients have no clinical symptoms except for episodic mild increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, they, therefore, become carriers and potentially sources of infections.[5,7] Lack of implementation or breakdown in standard infection control practices like failure to appropriately change gloves between patients, sharing of dialysis equipment, sharing of a multi-dose heparin vial, and lack of disinfection of machines between treatments are usually thought to be responsible for most of the documented instances of transmission of these viral infections in hemodialysis units. Therefore, strict observance of hemodialysis precautions including the cleaning and disinfecting of instruments, surfaces, and surrounding equipment etc., remains of paramount importance. Study aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence and clinical profile of HIV, HBV, and HCV patients on maintenance dialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical and epidemiological data of patients undergoing maintenance Rabbit polyclonal to ARSA hemodialysis in the dialysis unit of a teaching institution were obtained from January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 196 patients (127 males, 69 females) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and on maintenance dialysis were recruited into the study. This comprised all patients on maintenance dialysis at that time. Age, sex, HBsAg, anti-HIV-1, 2, and anti-HCV antibody and the primary cause of end-stage kidney disease were examined. Serum samples were screened using rapid screening kits, that is, Hepacard; J. Mitra for HBsAg, HCV Tridot; J. Mitra for anti-HCV and HIV Tridot; J Mitra for anti HIV-1, 2 in Microbiology department of the hospital. Those samples found seropositive in rapid tests were examined using commercial third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits, that is, erbalisa hepatitis B; Transasia C Biomedicals Ltd., or Hepalisa; J Mitra for HBsAg, erbalisa hepatitis C Transasia – Biomedicals Ltd., or HCV Microlisa, J Mitra for Anti HCV and Erbalisa HIV 1 and 2; Transasia – Biomedicals Ltd., or HIV Microlisa; J. Mitra for anti HIV-1, 2. Seropositivity status for these three viral markers for all the hemodialysis patients at the time of their first dialysis was not available; therefore, a number of new.