Arensk?tter, M., D. 35Y (24). RoxA is an extracellular diheme protein secreted by this strain during growth on NR (24). Purified RoxA degraded poly(gene was recognized in the gram-positive sp. strain K30, which belongs to the first group of NR-degrading bacteria, by Rose et al. (33). UV mutagenesis produced mutants having a clearing-zone-negative phenotype on latex overlay-agar plates and the inability to mineralize NR. A genomic DNA fragment from sp. strain K30, which restored the latex-positive phenotype in the mutants, comprised three open reading frames probably involved in NR degradation. The translational product of one gene exhibited similarities to a putatively secreted L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid protein of strain A3(2) and was designated Lcp (latex-clearing protein). The translational products of the two other open reading frames exhibited strong similarities to putative heterodimeric molybdenum hydroxylases (OxiAB) representing some isochinoline oxidoreductases and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Heterologous manifestation of in strain TK23, which is not able to use rubber, enabled this strain to form clearing zones on latex overlay-agar plates and to degrade NR as shown by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis and by staining with Schiff’s reagent indicating the presence of compounds L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid with aldehyde organizations among the degradation products of NR. Relating to a hypothetical degradation pathway, the plastic molecules are cleaved by Lcp to aldehydes and ketones with low molecular weights which are then possibly further oxidized by OxiAB to the related acids and triggered and metabolized via the -oxidation pathway in sp. strain K30 (34). Very little is known about the biochemical mechanism of plastic degradation in adhesively growing bacteria. Members of the genus serve as model organisms to investigate this element (2, 5, 12, 28, 29, 30). Due to the importance of Lcp for biodegradation of NR in sp. strain K30, the event and diversity of Lcp homologues in users of the genus were investigated with this study. This study should unravel whether Lcp homologues happen only in clearing-zone-forming bacteria or in any rubber-degrading bacteria. One Lcp homologue was recently identified inside a thermophilic adhesively growing strain of (20). To identify Lcp homologues in sp., degenerate PCR primers specific for genes coding for Lcp were designed based on DNA sequences from sp. strain K30, strain A3(2), and the strains IFM10152 and E1. Two identified were cultivated at 30C on either standard I complex nutrient broth (St-I; Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) or mineral salts medium (MSM) (38). L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid Carbon sources were added to liquid MSM as indicated in the text. Liquid ethnicities in Erlenmeyer flasks were incubated on a horizontal rotary shaker. Solid press were prepared by addition of 1 1.5% (wt/vol) agar-agar. For preparation of latex overlay-agar plates, MSM agar plates, comprising 1% (wt/vol) glucose, were covered with an overlay of MSM agar comprising 0.2% (vol/vol) latex concentrate (Neotex Latz; Weber & Schaer, Hamburg, Germany) plus 1% (wt/vol) glucose. was cultivated at 37C in Luria-Bertani broth (LB) (36). Antibiotics were applied according to the method of Sambrook et al. (36) and Mouse monoclonal to EP300 as indicated in the text. Protoplasts of strain TK23 were prepared from cells cultivated in revised YEME (3% [wt/vol] candida draw out, 5% [wt/vol] Bacto peptone, 3% [wt/vol] malt draw out, 34% [wt/vol] sucrose) medium (19). R5 agar plates were utilized for protoplast regeneration (25). TABLE 1. Bacterial strains and plasmids and oligonucleotides used in this study varieties????????strain VH2Poly(strain Y2KPoly(mutant A12strain VH2; KmrThis study????????mutant A17strain VH2; KmrThis study????????mutant A29strain VH2; KmrThis study????????mutant A34strain VH2; KmrThis study????????strain 44187Poly(strain Kb1Poly(strain IFM10152Poly(varieties????????sp. strain K30Poly(strain TK23Non-poly(strains????????XL1-Blue(rk? mk+) ?[F Tn((rk? mk+) ?cloning L-Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid vector (Apr T-tailing)Promega, Madison, WI????pGEM-T Easy::cloning vector (Apr), containing.